Thick lines show the 3-point running mean for both curves, and dashed lines indicate a a long-term average of 2. Grey shaded areas in BWT indicate a median offset 0. The middle, the upper and the lower horizontal lines in the box indicate the median value and 75th and 25th percentiles, respectively. This suggests that applying the Shackleton equation for Gullmar Fjord and Skagerrak will result in temperatures higher than observations, which has been also observed for Cibicidoides and Planulina from the Florida Straits Marchitto et al. Indeed, when testing the Shackleton equation on our dataset, the temperatures are warmer than the ICES hydrographic observation data by 1.
In contrast, the equation by Bemis et al. For this reason, in the current study we apply the McCorkle et al. Also shown, are relative abundances of foraminifer Cassidulina laevigata in the fjord with abundance minima and respective gaps in temperature reconstruction linked to the positive NAO index arrows. For the locations of these proxy records see Fig.
From to The corresponding salinity change is rather small 0. Such salinity changes are well within the amplitude of inter-annual variability 1—1. Foraminifera precipitate their tests during several months e. Filipsson et al.
No such relationship was found Fig. All instrumental BWT curves black are shown as point running means p. The resulting calculated bottom water temperature record is plotted as both absolute temperature values Fig. With very few outliers, the reconstructed temperature range 2. To further prove that our record represents a winter signal rather than summer conditions as most biological proxies we compare the obtained BWT record to instrumental temperatures recorded in the fjord deep water during summer and winter.
When performing such a comparison, instead of the commonly used June—August JJA temperatures for designation of meteorological summer, one has to consider the observations during May—August, when foraminifera precipitate their calcite Gustafsson and Nordberg, ; Filipsson et al. Likewise, instead of using the months typically employed for the definition of meteorological winter December—February: DJF , when comparing our record to instrumental data we use January—March. Observed annual temperatures registered between and which corresponds to the uppermost part of the composite GAa — record vary between 3.
Corresponding instrumental — temperatures for the foraminiferal growth season in the fjord May-August: see above show a 4. Furthermore, when plotting the reconstructed bottom water temperatures for the — period versus corresponding instrumental bottom water temperatures as annual averages and means for May—August Fig. However, an increased agreement is reached when comparing the reconstructed data to the hydrographic winter January—March temperature Fig.
From the reconstructed Gullmar Fjord temperature record five bottom water temperature intervals can be recognized Figs. Some intervals in the GAa — record were barren of C. The Gullmar Fjord winter bottom water temperature record shows both centennial and multidecadal variability and has a striking resemblance to climate periods see below historically known in northern Europe over the last years e. Lamb, ; Stuiver et al.
Lebreiro et al. Among forcing mechanisms for the late Holocene climate variability in the North Atlantic region changes in temperature and the influx of the Atlantic Water to the region e. Nordberg, ; Hass, ; Klitgaard-Kristensen et al. Masson-Delmotte et al. In addition, there is a strong coupling between atmospheric and ocean circulation, which is linked to the NAO variability. The NAO influences the strength and frequency of moist westerly winds that bring precipitation to northern Europe and has even been suggested to induce multidecadal-scale changes in the AMOC Dickson et al.
Below we discuss each of the climate extremes in detail and compare our record to available temperature proxy data from other settings, highly influenced by the multidecadal NAO variability and climate changes associated with it.
The fjord record shows consistently positive bottom water temperature anomalies during the Roman Warm Period RWP when compared to 5. The RWP is often associated with increasingly warm and dry summers both on the British Isles and in central Europe and is linked to the expansion of the Roman Empire Lamb, ; Wang et al. Other studies report an increase in the contribution of the Atlantic water to the East Greenland shelf, a reduced sea ice concentration and an increase in the export of fresh water from the Arctic with the East Greenland Current Fig.
Perner et al. Harland et al. Butruille et al. In a year long temperature record from the Malangen Fjord, north-western Norway Hald et al. The somewhat higher upper range limit of the RWP bottom water temperatures in the Skagerrak and Malangen Fjord, compared to our data, may be explained by the more direct influence of the more temperate Atlantic water at those sites, which may be less prominent in our study area as it is more land-locked and has a stronger continental influence.
Also given that our record reflects winter temperatures, its lower BWT temperature range during the RWP is quite reasonable. When comparing our data to the major temperature synthesis efforts undertaken for the last two millennia, it becomes evident that our RWP reconstruction seem to disagree with the Northern Hemisphere temperature record of Moberg et al. Our record displays variable bottom water temperatures in the fjord during the Dark Ages Figs.
Seidenkrantz et al. Furthermore, Seidenkrantz et al. There is also some cooling during the DACP indicated for the intermediate and deep water in the adjacent Skagerrak Butruille et al. Variable bottom water temperatures are also reported for the Malangen Fjord with a range 5. Trouet et al. The mean annual northern hemispheric and continental Europe temperature records Moberg et al.
Despite the inconsistency in timing, which likely results from dating uncertainties which may be the case for both studies , the two fjord records agree with each other rather well in terms of reconstructed bottom water temperature ranges for this period: 5.
Furthermore, an increase of a similar magnitude during the MCA is reported for the sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Cunningham et al.
Evolution of Toilets Worldwide through the Millennia
Many other proxy records report cooling of a similar magnitude or even stronger in the North Atlantic during the LIA e. Stuiver et al. The Little Ice Age is commonly associated with glacial advances in the Arctic and alpine regions Porter, ; Miller et al. Bianchi and McCave, ; Klitgaard Kristensen et al. For the Gullmar Fjord a general cooling during the LIA has previously been suggested based on increased abundances of cryophilic dinocysts Harland et al. A similarly warm but slightly displaced in time event is visible in other climate records Fig.
This suggests that this short-lived warming was a larger-scale phenomenon possibly linked to a strengthening of the winter NAO, which might have enhanced the AMOC Cage and Austin, A warming around is also seen in winter temperature reconstruction for Stockholm ports and harbours based on historical records of sea ice Leijonhufvud et al.
The model-based reconstruction by Orth et al.
- Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia.
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Luterbacher et al, Despite that this time period is known to coincide with the Dalton minimum in solar activity Grove, it is suggested that volcanic activity played a much more important role in climate cooling e. Wagner and Zorita, ; McGregor et al. It has even been suggested that the Gulf Stream may have experienced warming during this period e. The year long reconstruction of Stockholm winter temperatures also demonstrates that the 20th century has experienced four out of the five warmest decades over the last years: —, —, — and — Leijonhufvud et al.
The Gullmar Fjord temperature record shows that when considering a 3-point running mean temperature variability, the most recent warming does not stand out in comparison to the RWP and the MCA, as has also been previously demonstrated by other studies such as a tree ring-based summer temperature record from central Scandinavia Linderholm and Gunnarson, , Scottish loch data Cage and Austin, , North Atlantic SST composite data Cunningham et al.
This may reflect the so-called polar amplification, as suggested by Hald et al. The shallow Chesapeake Bay displays large seasonal temperature and salinity variability Cronin et al. Shallow water areas are known to generally warm up faster, especially given the facilitating atmospheric warming of the late 20th century due to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions e. Masson-Delmotte, ; this may also explain why the recent SST increase in the Chesapeake Bay record is unprecedented in a year perspective. Studying the instrumental hydrographic time series from the Gullmar Fjord plotted versus reconstructed temperatures Fig.
A similar increase has been documented for Loch Sunart Cage and Austin, and Ranafjorden, on the north-west coast of Norway Klitgaard-Kristensen et al. Instrumental meteorological time series for air temperatures since s from Stockholm and central England also demonstrate a winter temperature increase of 3—3. Overall, the variability in the reconstructed fjord temperatures corresponds well with both meteorological datasets from to , with the exception of an individual wiggle mismatch between and Fig.
In general, it appears that both air temperatures records lead the observed variability while bottom water temperatures are lagging behind for the — period Fig. Our record also shows higher BWT prior to the s Fig. A stronger North Atlantic Current would subsequently have resulted in an increased heat transport during winter to the eastern North Atlantic and in combination with other external forcing factors e. According to Jansen et al.
Since , Cassidulina laevigata has dramatically decreased in abundance in the Gullmar Fjord deep basin Fig. A similar pattern, with short disappearances of C. Gustafsson and Nordberg, ; Nardelli et al. To a large extent, the oxygen status of fjords and estuaries on the Swedish west coast, is controlled by climate e.
Nordberg et al. Thus, the short extinctions of C. To conclude, from the available paleotemperature equations, the equation by McCorkle et al. The relationship between the evolution of the fjord's bottom water temperatures over the last two millennia and other late Holocene climate records reveals synchronous North Atlantic-wide centennial and multidecadal climate variability despite age model uncertainties, different proxy type, time resolution, annual versus seasonal signal and different hydrographic characteristics.
The record also picks up the contemporary warming of the s and the s. KN conceived the research, obtained funding and organized and performed sediment core sampling in and HLF participated in the cruise, picked most of the foraminiferal samples and prepared them for stable oxygen isotopes and funded isotope analysis. IPA participated in an additional sampling campaign in , undertook sediment core sampling and picked and prepared the samples for stable isotope analysis.
IPA wrote the manuscript with the help of both co-authors. The authors sincerely thank everyone who helped perform this study. The manuscript greatly benefited from the insightful comments and suggestions from Antoon Kuijpers, an anonymous reviewer and journal editor Alessio Rovere. Abram, N. Appleby, P. Arneborg, L. Shelf Res. Barber, K. Belkin, I. Bemis, B. Bianchi, G. Bjerknes, J. Booth, B. Bronk Ramsey, C.
Butler, P. Butruille, C. Caesar, L. Cage, A. Casty, C. Cronin, T. Change, 36, 17—29, Cunningham, L. Curry, R. Delworth, T. Desprat, S. Dickson, R. Enfield, D. Faust, J.
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Filipsson, H. An example from Gullmar Fjord, Sweden, illustrated by benthic foraminifera and hydrographic data, Estuaries, 27, —, a. Grove, J. Gunnarson, B. Gustafsson, M. Hald, M. Hansen, B. Harland, R. Total Environ. Harrison, D. Hass, H. Hays, P. Helama, S. Howe, J. Hurrell, J. Jackson, L. Jansen, E. Press, —, Jiang, H. Keigwin, L. USA, 97, —, Kim, S. Kjennbakken, H. Klitgaard-Kristensen, D. Knox, J. Kolling, H. Kuhlbrodt, T. Lamb, H. Lebreiro, S. Leijonhufvud, L. International involvement in water quality issues; 3. Arsenic abundance and utilisation; 3. The scale of the arsenic problem; 3.
Remediation strategies; 3. Diagnosis and treatment of arsenicosis; 3. Contemporary Outbreaks of Water-Related Disease; 3. Conflict and disease; 3. Natural disasters; 3. Poverty; 3. Introduction; 4. Availability of Water. Hydraulic Works4. Ancient Korinthos-Hadrian's aqueduct; 4.
Evolution Of Water Supply Through The Millennia
Qanats in Greece; 4. Tunnel of Samos; 4. Discussion and Conclusions; References; Chapter 5: Water and water supply technologies in ancient Iran; 5. Introduction; 5.
Evolution of rainwater harvesting and use in Crete, Hellas, through the millennia - Dimensions
Plateau of Iran, the Cradle of Present Civilization; 5. Water in ancient Iran; 5. The establishment of water administration during the Achaemenid era; 5. Water flow measurement in ancient Iran; 5. Water from the point of view of Islam; 5. Water knowledge. Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia presents the major achievements in the scientific fields of water supply technologies and management throughout the millennia. It provides valuable insights into ancient water supply technologies with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability.
A comparison of the water technological developments in several civilizations is undertaken. These technologies are the underpinning of modern achievements in water engineering and management practices. It is the best proof that "the past is the key for the future. There are a great deal of unresolved problems related to the management principles, such as the decentralization of the processes, the durability of the water projects, the cost effectiveness, and sustainability issues such as protection from floods and droughts.
In the developing world, such problems were intensified to an unprecedented degree. Moreover, new problems have arisen such as the contamination of surface and groundwater. Naturally, intensification of unresolved problems led societies to revisit the past and to reinvestigate the successful past achievements. To their surprise, those who attempted this retrospect, based on archaeological, historical, and technical evidence were impressed by two things: the similarity of principles with present ones and the advanced level of water engineering and management practices.
Evolution of Water Supply Through the Millennia is intended for engineers in water resources companies, hydraulic design companies, and water Institutes. It can be used for all courses related to water resources. Authors Andreas N. Mays and A. Angelakis Water for human consumption through history L. Mays, M.
Sklivaniotis and A. Angelakis History of water and health Joanna M. Pope, Mark H. Weir and Joan B.