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More details than in Fridkis on the causes and impact of desertion. Cites studies that found marital infidelity to be the principal cause, followed by economic hardship, cheerless existences, poor health, and incompatibility. The total economic dependence of wives made many unwilling to testify against their husbands when they were apprehended.
Some even turned to prostitution. Concludes that desertion was probably under-reported and that a fuller picture would emerge with an analysis of female-headed households in the Jewish population, combined with figures from orphanages, and other sources of data. Fritz, Angela. Kander is best known as the creative force behind The Settlement Cookbook, first issued in This article explores aspects of her biography and strongly held views that led her to become a reformer and mentions some of her other activities.
Kander favored urban reform activity over campaigning for suffrage, which she thought distracted women from social change work. Geffen, David. Notes: Reprinted from the St. Louis Jewish Light, June 29, The American Jewess. She pointed out that, to her regret, the gathering began by denying women delegates a vote.
Reform rabbinical leader Kohler saw women as embodying an idealized Jewish past when Judaism was centered in homes imbued with Jewish values and customs. Even though Kohler championed equality for women in the synagogue, Goldman makes a convincing case that he still wanted them to maintain the Jewish home of yore and did not see the contradiction.
Leonard J. Greenspoon, Ronald A. Simkins, and Jean Alexrad Cahan, — Highlights Omaha examples of these changes. Miriam Peskowitz and Laura Levitt, 57— Discusses the salience of gender to the molding of American Judaism as seen through changes in architectural features of synagogue design as well as other accommodations to the dominant presence of women at Sabbath services.
Synagogues were the setting for redefinition of American Jewish female identity in nineteenth century Cincinnati. By the second half of the century, women came to dominate attendance at traditional weekly services. Nevertheless, not until the s did all adult women come to be counted as members of the congregations widows did much earlier , and only were admitted to synagogue boards of trustees in the twentieth century.
Aside from attendance at services, Jewish activities and observances declined among the women in the decades after Reform Judaism appeared on the scene. This changed when Eastern European Jews began arriving in huge numbers, providing the Reform Jewish women of Cincinnati and elsewhere with an opportunity for meaningful benevolent activities. From onward, sisterhoods provided another vehicle for communal involvement. Goldstein, Eric L. In late nineteenth century America, Jews self-described themselves as a race, a term that to them meant shared ancestry and religious culture.
When Jewish women began having more contact with the larger society, they favored a religious self-definition, along the lines used by American society in general, though at the same time they did not entirely give up the racial definition, either. Golinkin, David. Golomb, Deborah Grand.
Gurock: — While revolutionary in form, as the first such national gathering of Jewish women, the Congress is to Golomb more evolutionary in substance.
Greenberg, Blu. Michael Shapiro, 55— Lewiston, NY: E. Mellon Press, When not specified, "Talmud" refers to the Babylonian Talmud. Talmud study for girls and women, women in leadership positions within Orthodox congregations, and women in some circumstances reciting the Lit. Greenberg, Mark I. Although the combined influences of Southern and Jewish culture restricted the range of activities available to nineteenth century Savannah Jewish women, they contributed to family income through taking in boarders, provided the leadership and teachers for local Jewish Sunday schools, and were the force behind retaining Jewish practices in their homes.
In the closing decade of the century, they established a chapter of the National Council of Jewish Women. Eugenia Levy Phillips, Phoebe Yates Pember, and many other Savannah Jewish women were ardent supporters of the Confederacy, at times defying Southern custom and patriarchal views of women to do so. Guberman, Jayne K. Simpkins, and Jean Alexrad Cahan, 67— The focus of the interviews was on the actual lives, experiences, and reflections of women, instead of on their involvements or the activities of their spouses, characteristic of many prior oral histories. Three interrelated themes were explored by the project: the impact of gender on personal choices and outcomes, the experience of being Jewish, and the importance of place and region in shaping identity and experience.
Harris, Joanna Gewertz. Enlightening look at three children of Eastern European Jewish immigrants who became modern dance innovators. Each took part in the Neighborhood Playhouse of the Henry Street Settlement New York and drew inspiration for her choreography from her Jewish heritage in different ways. Tamiris advocated racially-mixed companies and was dedicated to encompassing multi-cultural elements.
Sokolow created dances around social concerns, and Maslow used Shalom Aleichem stories as a motif along with other folk elements. Hauptman, Judith. Robert M. Seltzer and Norman J. Cohen, — Attributes the rapid acceptance of Jewish feminism to the liberalism of the American Jewish community, the openness of American society to new ideas, the coming of age of the Jewish community, and its pluralistic denominational structure. Hauptman focuses primarily on developments in the Conservative Movement.
The way was eased by the fact decades earlier the Conservative Movement had made a number of radical changes in ritual, such as removing the mehitza separation and allowing men and women to sit together in the synagogue. Hauptman ends by calling for a recognition that halakha Jewish law can and does evolve in light of new ethical understandings. Egalitarianism is such a principle and therefore should be regarded as a halakhically-sanctioned development.
Hellerstein, Kathryn. Louis Fried, — New York: Greenwood, According to Hellerstein, evaluation and re-evaluation of the women poets is just beginning. Herman, Felicia. Uses the history of Sisterhoods of Personal Service as a case study of American Jewish adaptation to American culture. At first, inspired by Protestant trends in social welfare and view of women as the more religious of the sexes, these Sisterhoods were seen as ways for women to express their religiosity through communal charity work.
But in the s, the Sisterhoods of Personal Service model declined in favor of organizations also called sisterhoods that tended synagogues but no longer addressed social ills. Herman attributes the shift in purpose to five factors: a negation of the Victorian view of women as more religious and charitable, the end of mass Jewish immigration, heightened awareness of a need to combat total assimilation, the growth of paid, professional, social workers employed by Jewish federations, and a reassertion of masculine force within American Judaism. Herscher, Uri D. Entire issue devoted to memoirs of the immigrant experience, including Ida R.
Feeley on growing up on the East Side New York ; remarks by Lillian Wald to an convention of the National Council of Jewish women concerning crowded districts; and the experiences of being raised in Arkansas, by Jeannette W. Bernstein, and in North Dakota, by Bessie Schwartz. Entire issue devoted to memoirs expressing the many different life experiences of American Jews. Gerstley of Chicago Horvitz, Eleanor F. Discusses the benevolent organizations established by Jewish women in Rhode Island from the s onward. Focuses on an organization founded in that existed until , which provided free loans to Jewish women.
Describes two types of political activity in which Jewish women engaged early in the twentieth century that, though based on an assumption of female difference, led women to assert their legitimacy as political actors. The two activities were 1 the international fight against so-called white slavery and 2 activism around food and housing issues.
David Berger, — New York, Columbia University Press, Focuses on the intersection of gender, class, and Jewishness in standards for social and political behavior, extent and nature of employment, and formation of informal support networks of immigrant women. Identifies areas in need of further research. As a participant-observer of American Jewish feminism, Hyman reflects on the reasons why early goals enunciated by religiously-committed Jewish feminists in Ezrat Nashim were so readily accepted, and why later, more profound calls have met with less success.
Besides the general receptivity of the Jewish community to claims based on equality and steps such as mixed seating in synagogues that had prepared the way, equal education for boys and girls created a cadre of educated Jewish women who cogently argued the case for equality. The Ezrat Nashim members were products of the best Jewish education offered by the Conservative Movement.
Firmly rooted in Judaism, they functioned from within the community. Reform Judaism, having no The legal corpus of Jewish laws and observances as prescribed in the Torah and interpreted by rabbinic authorities, beginning with those of the Mishnah and Talmud. Feminists themselves are divided in the need for such changes, and many Jews remain emotionally attached or fear changes in the nature of Judaism.
Hyman urges feminists to challenge those who regard feminism itself as a threat to Jewish survival. Lynn Davidman and Shelly Tenenbaum, — Reviews the beginning steps in Jewish historiography towards recognition of gender as an analytic tool. From subsuming women under the universal male experience or ignoring their womanly activities entirely, historians influenced by twenty years of feminist historical scholarship started to add prominent women and the treatment of women to their work.
More recently historians have begun to use concepts of gender analysis to re-examine Jewish history as a whole. Hyman raises several areas for further research, among them the implications of transferring principal responsibility for Jewish cultural transmission to mothers, the meaning of community for women, and the impact of female entrance into the Rabbinate. Closes with a challenge to her fellow historians to enrich the understanding of Jewish history with attention to gender. Judith R.
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Baskin, — Uses gender as an analytical category with which to rethink the conventional views of historians about the acculturation of American Jews. Jewish women experienced America differently from Jewish men and from other women. Many came alone as single women, distinguishing their trajectory from that of other ethnicities where husbands and single men invariably emigrated first. Their work options were restricted to jobs considered suitable for women, but they embraced unionism and the fight for suffrage as opportunities to exercise their independence.
Unlike other immigrant women, married Jewish women generally stopped working outside the home. Although their economic situation was dependent on their husbands, when their income was comfortable, the women turned their attention to social and communal philanthropies. Shows how the Jewish, female, and Americanized aspects of the immigrant identities coalesced into collective action against the price of kosher meat.
While short-lived, the effectiveness of collective action by women was not lost on their sisters, daughters, or unions. Anshe Emet Congregation in Chicago made the bat mitzva a regular occurrence in the s and held a service in conducted by women, at which women were called to the Torah she-bi-khetav : Lit. The Brooklyn Jewish Center had its first bat mitzva in with the impetus coming from the Education Committee of the Hebrew School desirous of keeping girls in the School.
Jick, Leon. In the years between World War I and World War II, the Orthodox community followed suit after the Reform and Conservative branches of American Judaism in strengthening the relationship of Orthodox women to the synagogue, attending to their spiritual needs, and advancing their Jewish knowledge and practices. In the process the Orthodox synagogue changed. The service itself became more participatory and decorous. The synagogue became a center of community life, further increasing the comfort level of women congregants.
Gurock and Marc Lee Raphael, — The girls themselves rejected outright domestic service as a career and preferred commercial to manual training, but their ultimate goal was marriage. Neither the school nor the students moved beyond a gendered view of options. Jack Wertheimer, — New York: Cambridge University Press, Sisterhoods during the era examined were religious housekeepers of the synagogues, with responsibilities extending from decorating a sukka in an aesthetically-pleasing manner to providing food at youth events. Karsh, Audrey R. Katzburg-Yungman, Mira. Judith Tydor Baumel, and Tova Cohen, — Portland, OR: Vallentine Mitchell, Uses the concept of gender to explain the differences.
By contrast, Hadassah members were primarily non-employed women who had the time to devote to Hadassah activities. These needs swelled in the new country, which maintained a strong purpose for Hadassah and its members during the early years of statehood. Also makes the point that Hadassah accepted the view of gender difference inherent in American society at the time. Kessler-Harris, Alice. Each saw her options as either career with the Union or marriage and children, and each chose the Union.
Kessler-Harris credits the high value American Jewish culture placed on self-sufficiency with influencing their decisions. Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. Puts cookbooks forward as a source full of information on social, religious, and domestic life, particularly of women. Klapper, Melissa. The Hebrew Technical School for Girls founded and the Clara de Hirsch Home founded were the two most prominent privately funded vocational schools ofr Jewish women in New York.
The article points out the tension between the older, middle class Jewish community and working class new immigrants. The schools were started by philanthropists in the established Jewish community intent on Americanizing and inculcating middle class values into working class immigrant girls. The schools were started by philanthropists in the established Jewish community intent on Americanization and inculcating middle class values into working class immigrant girls. The schools reconciled the middle class ideology of female domesticity and the necessity for poor immigrant women to enter the labor force by preparing their students for domestic work.
The schools taught sewing, millinery, dressmaking, needlework, and cooking. Later the Hebrew Technical School, although not the Clara de Hirsch Home, offered a commercial track and some academic courses, which the students preferred to the consternation of community members who thought that domestic skills were the most important. The boards of the schools also considered paid labor to be temporary, between the end of formal education and marriage, a situation that was unrealistic for the working class student body.
The schools declined as the concept of acceptable work for women expanded beyond the domestic and as public schools began offering vocational courses. Asserts that because high schools are basically conservative institutions, they posed no threat to Jewish families and communities during the time period discussed, and therefore Jewish parents were often willing to allow their daughters to attend. Colleges, on the other hand, were more problematic. Even attendance at high school was not assured in families that needed the income from girls—or chose to use it fro the education of their brothers, which was considered a much higher priority.
Klingenstein, Susanne. None received a Jewish education as a child comparable to that of boys of their generation, yet both gender and Jewishness affect their lives and careers. A groundbreaking study of Jewish women in a profession. Korelitz, Seth. Kramer, William M. Maxine Schwartz Seller, 62— Based on interviews with forty-five women who on the whole succeeded in adjusting to America, helped by family, neighbors, churches and synagogues, and ethnic communities.
Lamoree, Karen M. Discusses admissions policy and campus life of Jewish students admitted during the period — Larson, Kate Clifford. Lavitt, Pamela Brown. Fanny Brice and Sophie Tucker were the last and achieved the most fame. Lavitt fills in the period preceding them by reviewing the careers of their Jewish vaudeville foremothers, Ziegfeld girls Anna Held and Nora Bayes. Lederhendler, Eli. Examines the advice manuals and journals written or translated into Yiddish that sought to Americanize immigrant Jews through instructing them in manners, hygiene, fashion, parenting, sexuality, and birth control.
Since most of these topics fall within the traditional sphere relegated to women, the literature was often addressed to them specifically. Lerner, Anne Lapidus. Often-cited article on the effect feminism has had on Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism in America. Lerner, Elinor. David Gerber, — Reprinted in Anti-Semitism in America , ed.
Barbara J. Harris and JoAnn K. Discusses the roles played in the movement by Ernestine Rose, Maud Nathan, and Rose Schneiderman and the legions of immigrant Jewish women in the victorious quest for voting rights. Lipstadt, Deborah E. Mentions countertrends as well, such as the small percentage of female Federation presidents or senior women rabbis of large congregations and, among the Orthodox, the revival of abandoned customs that separate out women.
Litt, Jacquelyn. Uses narratives of 20 Jewish women who gave birth to their first child between and to examine the relationship between mothers and medical discourse. The women were eager to adopt medicalized mothering practices as a sign of their advancement from immigrant culture into the American middle class. New Brunswick, N. Malone, Bobbie.
On two native New Orleans women from different Jewish backgrounds Ruth Dreyfous, Reform, and Rosalie Cohen, Orthodox who lived full, public-oriented lives that spanned most of the twentieth century. Mayer, Susan.
On two American leaders in nursing active during the first half of the twentieth century. Both graduated from nursing programs in In addition to several positions in the U. Kaplan was nursing superintendent and an administrator at the Leo N. McCune, Mary. While in theory committed to equality, few women attended meetings or achieved leadership positions within the organization in the time period studied, due to a series of factors. However, women formed their own affiliates, where they concentrated on education and social welfare concerns, which, over time, influenced the overall agenda of the organization, transforming it into one with wider social and cultural purposes.
In the s Rose Asch-Simpson successfully spearheaded the formation of a Social Service Department, which rendered critical assistance to members during the Great Depression. Hadassah leaders had a gendered conception of the work of their organization, seeing it as a nurturing, practical Zionism. To them, Zionism meant building a nation, in the course of which the effete, diasporic, Jewish male would be rejuvenated into the new Jewish man, a concept known as muskeljudentum muscular Jewry. McGinity, Keren R. Uses the experiences of European-born American writer-activists Mary Antin Grabau, Rose Pastor Stokes, and Anna Strunsky Walling as examples of women for whom intermarriage was a means of joining the dominant culture.
All three marriages failed, but McGinity does not attribute any of the failures to intermarriage, but rather to political differences and financial disagreements. Even after their marriage to non-Jews, the three continued to exemplify a Jewish commitment to social justice. Miller, Jessica Davidson. Surveys secular-legal, religious, and organizational attempts to solve the problem of the aguna , a woman who wants to be divorced, but whose husband refuses to transmit a letter of divorce get , leaving her unable to remarry according to Jewish law.
Shows how the situation actually worsened for observant women after the Reform Movement accepted civil divorce and did away with the get in Their former husbands could now be remarried by Reform rabbis as could the women, if they chose to abandon tradition. Women who wanted to remain traditional had lost one of the communal sticks that had helped compel men to sign a get. Monson, Rela Geffen. Halakhah , and Contemporary Realities, ed.
Susan Grossman and Rivka Haut, — Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society Credits the feminist movement and gains made by educated, professional Jewish women in the outside world with awakening their desire for change within Judaism. Life cycle rituals were affected next, including in the Orthodox community, which introduced the simhat bat naming ceremony for a baby girl and extended the concept of bat mitzvah to mark the coming of age for Orthodox girls.
The impact on the Conservative Movement has been considerable, from ordaining women rabbis since to ceding to women many leadership positions within congregations. Developing gender-neutral liturgical language became an interest of Jewish women in the Reform Movement. Essay is followed by personal vignettes from women across the religious spectrum with varying views of the changes wrought. Muir, Lisa. Marc Lee Raphael, 73— Karp to explain what in the American national character most influenced the American Jewish community.
For women, freedom of religion led to the establishment of synagogues and associated organizations where women were allowed increasing roles, particularly in Reform congregations. Frontier communities educated girls and boys together, and a dearth of traditional leaders opened up opportunities for women that included acting as Rabbis in some instances. The immigration of Eastern European Jews created Conservative institutions that permitted women to become leaders more slowly than did the Reform movement, yet also gradually allowed women such roles.
Provides examples where Liebman generalized about American Jewish life from exclusively male samples and calls gender an essential category of history. Jeffrey Gurock and Marc Lee Raphael, — Marc Lee Raphael, — Seeks to rectify the notion that the historiography of Jewish women did not begin until the s. All had PhDs, but only Askowith had a career teaching at an academic institution lecturer level at Hunter College. Weiss-Rosmarin is best known of the three, since she founded and edited The Jewish Spectator for over half a century. Lebeson lectured and published books and articles.
Rudavsky, — The story of Irma Levy Lindheims, a well-to-do New York matron and mother of five who became an ardent Zionist and full-time student in the Jewish Institute of Religion in the s, is a particularly compelling one. Although she did not complete her studies, she went on to become the second president of Hadassah, which she wrote made her feel more truly ordained than if she had been confirmed as a Rabbi.
In the introduction, Nadell reviews the course of incorporation of women and gender into Jewish historiography. Maurie Sacks, 63— Once established, individual sisterhoods and their umbrella organization, the National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods, moved beyond supporting activities to involvement in shaping the customs and role for women in Reform Judaism. Differs with Joselit who views sisterhoods as negligible factors of change. Nelson, Anna Kasten. Neu, Irene D. Describes several Sephardic women merchants and shopkeepers in the eighteenth century, when it was not unusual for women to engage in business, particularly if they were unmarried or widowed.
This is followed by discussion of fewer acceptable options for nineteenth-and early twentieth-century German and Eastern European immigrant married women, who could join their husbands in shopkeeping and small manufacturing ventures, but rarely set out on their own.
Single women might work as domestics or in factories, but did not pursue business ventures. Neu recounts stories of some Eastern European women who showed marked entrepreneurial ability and were more enterprising than their husbands within familial businesses. After the immigrant generation, few Jewish women were engaged in business, expending their energies instead on volunteer work.
Paton-Walsh, Margaret. Pearlstein, Peggy K. Laura S. Wolfson, and Barbara Y.
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Leff, —8. New York: Association of Jewish Libraries, For further information, see the article below for Pearlstein, Peggy K. Sheridan Harvey, — Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Reviews groups of selected sources, including newspapers and periodicals, community publications, and cookbooks in Hebrew, Yiddish, English, and several other languages. Describes in more detail the Yiddish American play manuscripts, films, and sheet music that entered the Library of Congress through the depository function of the Copyright Office, mentioning prominent women playwrights, film start, and lyricists; and the collections of sound recordings.
The article is richly illustrated with color reproductions from the genres surveyed. For a discussion of the process of creating the Guide, see Pearlstein, Peggy K. Pratt, Norma Fain. American Jewish History 70, no. Lois Scharf and Joan M. Deals with the lives and works of some fifty writers virtually ignored by historians until Pratt rediscovered them.
They shared a proletarian Eastern European Jewish background and poorly educated parents with many of the mothers being close to illiterate. They themselves received little advanced formal education, yet became journalists, poets, and fiction writers in their own language in America.
Their writing appeared in radical, secular Yiddish newspapers and literary journals and spoke of female, Jewish, and working-class concerns and adjustments to life in America. An appendix lists the poets, with their birth and immigration dates. Jacob R. Marcus and Abraham J. Peck, 78— Cincinnati: American Jewish Archives, Pratt found a more complex situtation when she examined their experiences in Los Angeles between and Like men, women were expected to work and to move from working to middle class through education for middle class occupations, which for women meant clerical work.
Janet Wilson James, — Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Explains the Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform movements in American Judaism as background to discussion of changes in the type and degree of participation by women in the s. These areas, therefore, became open to women, who availed themselves of the opportunities for involvement. Also discusses Der yidisher froyen zhurnal [ The Jewish Ladies Journal ], —23, memoirs, poetry and other writings by women, their organizations, and the education of girls.
Captures some significant names, events, and experiences of Jewish women settlers in Southern California from the mid-nineteenth century to the present. Hollywood, however, is another story. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, These writers touched on important life issues—work, sex, family, education, and justice—as seen from the eye of the working woman and may have contributed to the collective action aimed at bettering working conditions spearheaded by Jewish women not long thereafter.
Quack, Sibylle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Begins by describing the experiences of German Jewish women before they fled Germany, then discusses their emigration pattern in fewer numbers than men, in part because they delayed leaving in order to tend old or sick relatives or because many worked for Jewish welfare organizations that needed them , followed by a description of what they did once they arrived in the United States. Many accepted positions as domestics, no matter what they had done previously, or in factories, offices, hospitals, or retail shops. On the whole it was easier for German Jewish immigrant women to find jobs than it was for men.
In Germany, women were more apt to study languages, and some already knew English. They were also ready to accept anything that would bring in an income, viewing their participation in such jobs or the workforce in general as temporary, while their husbands re-trained, learned English, and secured permanent positions. After the families were well-settled in America, though, not all the women gave up working outside the home. Gender relations were changed, however, even for those who did.
Quint, Ellen Deutsch. Reviews the progress in involvement of lay and professional women leaders in federations since the early s when the issue was first put on national and local federation agendas. Surveys in of volunteer decision makers and in of professional positions found women severely limited in their participation rate. Subsequent surveys noted improvements, due to active steps taken by the federations to make their boards and upper echelon staff positions more inclusive, yet a survey still found few women at the very top of federations in large cities.
Deutsch calls for continued efforts to attract women philanthropists, volunteers, and professional leaders. Reimer, Gail Twersky. Includes nine illustrations. Rochlin, Harriet. Equivocating on a firm answer to her question, Rochlin offers examples of successful Jewish women pioneers of the West, then asks a series of quantitative, comparative, and Jewish questions awaiting further research. Explores the hints of Jewish lesbian history present in the lives of early twentieth- century social reformers and labor organizers and the fiction of Jo Sinclair.
Traces developments in the s including the founding of gay synagogues, networks of Jewish lesbian consciousness-raising groups, and the rise of a distinctive literature. Finds increased acceptance of gays and lesbians in congregations and rabbinical training in the s, but also considerable remaining homophobia, ignorance, and ignoring of lesbians by the organized American Jewish community. Criticizes Jewish feminist historical scholarship that ignores lesbians.
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Rojanski, Rachel. Uses the experiences of Esther Mintz-Aberson, the only woman in a leadership position in Poalei Zion up to the s, to show that the members of the Socialist Zionist organization, which was officially supportive of equality between the genders, had a far more complex attitude. Contrasts the experience of Mintz-Aberson, who tried to be active in the male-dominated organization but was only able to achieve important positions when Poalei Zion was at a low ebb or when she moved to Chicago, away from the national organization in New York, with two leaders of Pioneer Women, Sophie Udin and Sarah Rivka Feder Kheifetz.
Udin and Feder Kheifetz were more attuned to the pattern in America of women organizing and achieving within separate channels. Rosen, Robert N. Pember was matron of a division of Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond, VA, at a time when it was quite unusual for a woman to be involved in hospital management. Rotter, Arlene G. Assesses the year career of Hungarian-born Annie Teitelbaum Wise in the Atlanta Public Schools, including her stint as principal of English Commercial High School from the standpoint of what was possible for a Jewish immigrant woman to achieve.
Sanua, Marianne. Sarna, Jonathan D. Jack Wertheimer, —,. Sassler, Sharon. Uses data from the Census Public Use Sample in order to test general assimilation theory, which assumes a similar experience for men and women, by probing information on the pursuits of daughters in families of different ethnicities. Concludes that a single model, whether applied to both women and men, or applied uniformly to all ethnic groups, does not reflect the actual data.
Among the findings concerning Jews: immigrant Jewish girls were significantly less likely than first-generation Italian girls to give up attending school in order to perform domestic chores at home, regardless of family size or household composition. Schwartz, Shuly Rubin. Waxman was managing editor of Judaism , Jungreis is the charismatic founder of Hineni International, and Greenberg personifies feminism within Orthodoxy. Their status as rebbetzin allowed them, sometimes as substitutes for their husbands, to teach, speak, write, and grow into prominence in their own right.
Seller, Maxine S. Dirk Hoerder, — After summarizing the working conditions that led to the strike, Sellers discusses how the coincidence of class and ethnicity within the Yiddish-speaking community created the climate in which Jewish women had no conflict becoming union activists. Shargel, Baila Round. Restores Bessie Goldstein Gotsfeld to her rightful place in history alongside Szold as an American woman who was vital in the establishment of institutions in Jewish Palestine.
The two women shared many similarities of temperament, talents, and commitments. Both were sensitive to beauty, oldest child in a large family, childless, brilliant, multilingual, and efficient and excellent organizers. They were single-mindedly to their organization and religious, but also diverged. Gotsfeld was married, Szold was not. Szold was more literary and scholarly. While both were religious, Gotsfeld was Orthodox and considered the establishment of the Chief Rabbinate an absolute necessity. Shargel refers to them as partly partner and partly nemesis of each other.
Sheramy, Rona. Sinkoff, Nancy B. Their attitude was compassionate but patronizing. Smith, Barbara. Seminal article on the complex relationship between Black and Jewish women. According to Smith, as women they share an awareness of oppression, but both have absorbed the prejudices of the other part of their identities—Jews as white, and Blacks as Christian.
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