Scott Soames has selected thirty-one essays spanning nearly three decades of thinking about linguistic meaning and the philosophical significance of language. A judicious collection of old and new, these volumes include sixteen essays published in the s and s, nine published since , and six new essays.
The essays in Volume 1 investigate what linguistic meaning is; how the meaning of a sentence is related to the use we make of it; what we should expect from empirical theories of the meaning of the languages we speak; and how a sound theoretical grasp of the intricate relationship between meaning and use can improve the interpretation of legal texts.
The essays in Volume 2 illustrate the significance of linguistic concerns for a broad range of philosophical topics--including the relationship between language and thought; the objects of belief, assertion, and other propositional attitudes; the distinction between metaphysical and epistemic possibility; the nature of necessity, actuality, and possible worlds; the necessary a posteriori and the contingent a priori; truth, vagueness, and partial definition; and skepticism about meaning and mind.
The two volumes of Philosophical Essays are essential for anyone working on the philosophy of language. He also pointed out that verificationism was tied to the distinction between analytic and synthetic statements, and asserted that such a divide was defended ambiguously.
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He also suggested that the unit of analysis for any potential investigation into the world and, perhaps, meaning would be the entire body of statements taken as a collective, not just individual statements on their own. Other criticisms can be raised on the basis of the limitations that truth-conditional theorists themselves admit to. Tarski, for instance, recognized that truth-conditional theories of meaning only make sense of statements, but fail to explain the meanings of the lexical parts that make up statements.
Rather, the meaning of the parts of statements is presupposed by an understanding of the truth-conditions of a whole statement, and explained in terms of what he called "satisfaction conditions".
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Still another objection noted by Frege and others was that some kinds of statements don't seem to have any truth-conditions at all. For instance, "Hello! In other words, different propositions have different grammatical moods. Deflationist accounts of truth, sometimes called 'irrealist' accounts, are the staunchest source of criticism of truth-conditional theories of meaning.
According to them, "truth" is a word with no serious meaning or function in discourse. For instance, for the deflationist, the sentences "It's true that Tiny Tim is trouble" and "Tiny Tim is trouble" are equivalent. In consequence, for the deflationist, any appeal to truth as an account of meaning has little explanatory power.
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The sort of truth-theories presented here can also be attacked for their formalism both in practice and principle. The principle of formalism is challenged by the informalists , who suggest that language is largely a construction of the speaker, and so, not compatible with formalization. The practice of formalism is challenged by those who observe that formal languages such as present-day quantificational logic fail to capture the expressive power of natural languages as is arguably demonstrated in the awkward character of the quantificational explanation of definite description statements, as laid out by Bertrand Russell.
Finally, over the past century, forms of logic have been developed that are not dependent exclusively on the notions of truth and falsity. Some of these types of logic have been called modal logics. They explain how certain logical connectives such as "if-then" work in terms of necessity and possibility. Indeed, modal logic was the basis of one of the most popular and rigorous formulations in modern semantics called the Montague grammar.
The successes of such systems naturally give rise to the argument that these systems have captured the natural meaning of connectives like if-then far better than an ordinary, truth-functional logic ever could. Throughout the 20th century, English philosophy focused closely on analysis of language. This style of analytic philosophy became very influential and led to the development of a wide range of philosophical tools. The philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein was originally an artificial language philosopher, following the influence of Russell and Frege.
In his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus he had supported the idea of an ideal language built up from atomic statements using logical connectives see picture theory of meaning and logical atomism. However, as he matured, he came to appreciate more and more the phenomenon of natural language. Philosophical Investigations , published after his death, signalled a sharp departure from his earlier work with its focus upon ordinary language use see use theory of meaning and ordinary language philosophy.
Meaning (philosophy of language)
His approach is often summarised by the aphorism "the meaning of a word is its use in a language". However, following in Frege's footsteps, in the Tractatus , Wittgenstein declares: " Only in the context of a proposition has a name meaning. His work would come to inspire future generations and spur forward a whole new discipline, which explained meaning in a new way. Meaning in a natural language was seen as primarily a question of how the speaker uses words within the language to express intention. This close examination of natural language proved to be a powerful philosophical technique.
Practitioners who were influenced by Wittgenstein's approach have included an entire tradition of thinkers, featuring P. Strawson , Paul Grice , R. Hare , R. At around the same time Ludwig Wittgenstein was re-thinking his approach to language, reflections on the complexity of language led to a more expansive approach to meaning.
Following the lead of George Edward Moore , J. Austin examined the use of words in great detail. He argued against fixating on the meaning of words. He showed that dictionary definitions are of limited philosophical use, since there is no simple "appendage" to a word that can be called its meaning. Instead, he showed how to focus on the way in which words are used in order to do things. He analysed the structure of utterances into three distinct parts: locutions , illocutions and perlocutions.
His pupil John Searle developed the idea under the label " speech acts ". Their work greatly influenced pragmatics.
Past philosophers had understood reference to be tied to words themselves. However, Sir Peter Strawson disagreed in his seminal essay, "On Referring", where he argued that there is nothing true about statements on their own; rather, only the uses of statements could be considered to be true or false. Indeed, one of the hallmarks of the ordinary use perspective is its insistence upon the distinctions between meaning and use.
The word "dog" is an example of a meaning, but pointing at a nearby dog and shouting "This dog smells foul! From this distinction between usage and meaning arose the divide between the fields of Pragmatics and Semantics. Yet another distinction is of some utility in discussing language: "mentioning". Mention is when an expression refers to itself as a linguistic item, usually surrounded by quotation marks.
For instance, in the expression "'Opopanax' is hard to spell", what is referred to is the word itself "opopanax" and not what it means an obscure gum resin. Frege had referred to instances of mentioning as "opaque contexts". He pointed out that there are two uses of definite descriptions: attributive and referential. Attributive uses provide a description of whoever is being referred to, while referential uses point out the actual referent.
Attributive uses are like mediated references, while referential uses are more directly referential. Natural meaning had to do with cause and effect, for example with the expression "these spots mean measles". Non-natural meaning, on the other hand, had to do with the intentions of the speaker in communicating something to the listener.
In his essay, Logic and Conversation , Grice went on to explain and defend an explanation of how conversations work. His guiding maxim was called the cooperative principle , which claimed that the speaker and the listener will have mutual expectations of the kind of information that will be shared.
The principle is broken down into four maxims: Quality which demands truthfulness and honesty , Quantity demand for just enough information as is required , Relation relevance of things brought up , and Manner lucidity. This principle, if and when followed, lets the speaker and listener figure out the meaning of certain implications by way of inference. The works of Grice led to an avalanche of research and interest in the field, both supportive and critical. One spinoff was called Relevance theory , developed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson during the mids, whose goal was to make the notion of relevance more clear.
In it, he laid out the goal of a valid conversation as a pursuit of mutual understanding. Although he has focused on the structure and functioning of human syntax, in many works     Noam Chomsky has discussed many philosophical problems too, including the problem of meaning and reference in human language. Chomsky has formulated a strong criticism against both the externalist notion of reference reference consists in a direct or causal relation among words and objects and the internalist one reference is a mind-mediated relation holding among words and reality.
Chomsky argues that the notion of reference can be used only when we deal with scientific i. These and other cases induce Chomsky to argue that the only plausible although not scientific notion of reference is that of act of reference, a complex phenomenon of language use performance which includes many factors linguistic and not: i. As Chomsky himself has pointed out  , this conception of meaning is very close to that adopted by John Austin , Peter Strawson and the late Wittgenstein. Michael Dummett argued against the kind of truth-conditional semantics presented by Davidson.
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Instead, he argued that basing semantics on assertion conditions avoids a number of difficulties with truth-conditional semantics, such as the transcendental nature of certain kinds of truth condition. He leverages work done in proof-theoretic semantics to provide a kind of inferential role semantics, where:. A semantics based upon assertion conditions is called a verificationist semantics: cf.
This work is closely related, though not identical, to one-factor theories of conceptual role semantics.
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Sometimes between the s, cognitive scientist Jerry Fodor said that use theories of the Wittgensteinian kind seem to assume that language is solely a public phenomenon, that there is no such thing as a "private language". Fodor thinks it is necessary to create or describe the language of thought , which would seemingly require the existence of a "private language". In the s, David Kellogg Lewis described meaning as use, a feature of a social convention and conventions as regularities of a specific sort.
Lewis' work was an application of game theory in philosophical topics.
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The idea theory of meaning also ideational theory of meaning , most commonly associated with the British empiricist John Locke , claims that meanings are mental representations provoked by signs. The term "ideas" is used to refer to either mental representations, or to mental activity in general.
Those who seek an explanation for meaning in the former sort of account endorse a stronger sort of idea theory of mind than the latter. Those who seek an explanation for meaning in the former sort of account endorse a stronger sort of idea theory of meaning than the latter. Print Flyer Recommend to Librarian. More options … Overview Content Contact Persons. Frontmatter Pages i-vi. Download PDF. Contents Pages vii-viii. The Origins of These Essays Pages ix-xii.
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